1. Burton, D. & Smith-Darden, J., North American Survey of Sexual Abuser Treatment and Models 2000, Brandon, VT: Safer Society Foundation, 2001.
2. Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, The Sex Offender Treatment Provider Directory For Maryland, Baltimore, 2003.
3. Okami, P., “'Child Perpetrators of
Sexual Abuse': The Emergence of a Problematic Deviant Category,” Journal
Sex Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 209-130, 1992.
4. Zimring, F.E., An American Travesty: Legal Responses to Adolescent Sexual Offending, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
The emergence of a new illness
According to a survey conducted in 2000, there are at least 66 programs in the U.S. for deviant prepubescent children, and 291 for deviant adolescents.1 There may be far more than that; just one state's directory of such programs lists 16 for prepubescent children and 29 for adolescents.2
providers do not constitute a typical group of mainstream mental health
professionals. In fact, UC Berkeley law professor and juvenile
justice expert Franklin Zimring
writes the following about one extremely influential group:
This vocal and well-organized network of
treatment units for juvenile sex offenders is not a standard group of
mental health professionals by any means...Part mental health treatment
group, part victim advocacy organization, part social movement to take
power away from judges and police in the name of therapeutic control of
juvenile sex offenders, the individuals and organizations that
coalesced to form the National Adolescent Perpetrator Network represent
an offense-specific treatment movement without precedent in American
So how do such treatment providers identify children or adolescents as sexually deviant? Researchers have pointed out that their methods of diagnosis suffer from several flaws:
Continue to Lack of Knowledge
When experts are wrong
Casualties of war
Lack of knowledge
Humiliation as therapy
Convos with providers